Breeding Management of the Bitch

Breeding management is one offered by the UC Davis Theriogenology Service. This is an overview of the breeding process with details for a healthy pregnancy.

Canine Pseudopregnancy

Canine Pseudopregnancy, or pseudocyesis, is a normal process in female dogs. False/pseudo pregnancy is not associated with reproductive organ disorders.

Dystocia in the Bitch

Dystocia is the inability to expel neonates through the birth canal from the uterus. A diagnosis of dystocia should be made and treatment instituted quickly.

Ovarian Remnant Syndrome

Ovarian remnant syndrome occurs when spayed females exhibit behavior and hormone levels consistent with being in heat.

Ovulation Timing in the Dog

Ovulation timing is critical to enhance conception in dogs. Improper timing for breeding is not an uncommon cause for conception failure.

Pregnancy Diagnosis in the Bitch

Reliable methods for pregnancy diagnosis include abdominal palpation, level of relaxin in blood, abdominal ultrasound, and radiographs.

Pregnancy Prevention

Preventing pregnancy is a core responsibility for any animal owner. The best, permanent contraceptive methods are spays for females and neuters for males.


Pyometra is a bacterial infection of the uterus that occurs during a specific part of the heat cycle called diestrus.

Stump Pyometra

Stump pyometra refers to a hormone (progesterone) mediated infection of a remnant of the uterus.